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The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

Bickram Pradhan1*, François Chappuis2, Dharanidhar Baral3, Prahlad Karki1, Suman Rijal1, Antoine Hadengue2 and Pascal Gache4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Internal Medicine, B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 56700, Nepal

2 Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211, Geneva, 14, Switzerland

3 School of Public health, B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 56700, Nepal

4 Rue des deux-ponts 20, Geneva, 1205, Switzerland

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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2012, 7:42  doi:10.1186/1747-597X-7-42

Published: 5 October 2012



Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse.


This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females.


A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%), alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3%) and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%). The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender) and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females). For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females.


The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university hospital. This study also reveals a very high prevalence of alcohol use disorders in Nepal.

Alcohol use disorder; AUDIT; SCID for DSM- IV