Open Access Research

The index of tobacco treatment quality: development of a tool to assess evidence-based treatment in a national sample of drug treatment facilities

A Paula Cupertino1, Jamie J Hunt2, Byron J Gajewski34, Yu Jiang3, Janet Marquis5, Peter D Friedmann6, Kimberly K Engelman1 and Kimber P Richter1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA

2 School of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte St., Kansas City, MO 64108, USA

3 Department of Biostatistics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA

4 University of Kansas School of Nursing, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA

5 The Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies, Dole Human Development Center, Rm 1052, 1000 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA

6 Providence VA Medical Center, 830 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908-4799, USA

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Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2013, 8:13  doi:10.1186/1747-597X-8-13

Published: 15 March 2013

Abstract

Background

Quitting smoking improves health and drug use outcomes among people in treatment for substance abuse. The twofold purpose of this study is to describe tobacco treatment provision across a representative sample of U.S. facilities and to use these data to develop the brief Index of Tobacco Treatment Quality (ITTQ).

Methods

We constructed survey items based on current tobacco treatment guidelines, existing surveys, expert input, and qualitative research. We administered the survey to a stratified sample of 405 facility administrators selected from all 3,800 U.S. adult outpatient facilities listed in the SAMHSA Inventory of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. We constructed the ITTQ with a subset of 7 items that have the strongest clinical evidence for smoking cessation.

Results

Most facilities (87.7%) reported that a majority of their clients were asked if they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half of facilities (48.6%) reported that a majority of their smoking clients were advised to quit. Fewer (23.3%) reported that a majority of their smoking clients received tobacco treatment counseling and even fewer facilities (18.3%) reported a majority of their smoking clients were advised to use quit smoking medications. The median facility ITTQ score was 2.57 (on a scale of 1–5) and the ITTQ displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .844). Moreover, the ITTQ had substantial test-retest reliability (.856), and ordinal confirmatory factor analysis found that our one-factor model for ITTQ fit the data very well with a CFI of 0.997 and an RMSEA of 0.042.

Conclusions

The ITTQ is a brief and reliable tool for measuring tobacco treatment quality in substance abuse treatment facilities. Given the clear-cut room for improvement in tobacco treatment, the ITTQ could be an important tool for quality improvement by identifying service levels, facilitating goal setting, and measuring change.

Keywords:
Smoking cessation; Substance abuse treatment; Tobacco use disorder; Health care services; Addiction